Character displacement is a niche evolutionary phenomenon that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same habitat forcing one or both to undergo changes in morphology behavior or physiology.

Students learn the basics of the electromagnetic spectrum and how various types of electromagnetic waves are related in terms of wavelength and energy in addition they are introduced to the various types of waves that make up the electromagnetic spectrum including radio waves ultraviolet waves visible light and infrared waves these topics help inform.

In physics work is defined as a force causing the movement mdash or displacement mdash of an object in the case of a constant force work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement caused by that force though both force and displacement are vector quantities work has no direction due to the nature of a scalar product or dot product in.